The Nature of Nasal Fricatives: Articulatory-Perceptual Characteristics and Etiologic Considerations Nasal fricatives (NFs) are unusual, maladaptive articulations used by children both with and without palatal anomalies to replace oral fricatives. Nasal fricatives vary in articulatory, aerodynamic, and acoustic-perceptual characteristics with two generally distinct types recognized. One type is produced with velopharyngeal (VP) constriction that results in turbulent nasal airflow and, ... Article
Article  |   July 01, 2015
The Nature of Nasal Fricatives: Articulatory-Perceptual Characteristics and Etiologic Considerations
Author Affiliations & Notes
  • David J. Zajac
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC
  • Disclosures: Financial: David J. Zajac has no financial interests to disclose.
    Disclosures: Financial: David J. Zajac has no financial interests to disclose.×
  • Nonfinancial: Some data were presented as a poster at the Annual Meeting of the American Cleft Palate Craniofacial Association, April, 2015
    Nonfinancial: Some data were presented as a poster at the Annual Meeting of the American Cleft Palate Craniofacial Association, April, 2015×
Article Information
Hearing & Speech Perception / Acoustics / Special Populations / Genetic & Congenital Disorders / Articles
Article   |   July 01, 2015
The Nature of Nasal Fricatives: Articulatory-Perceptual Characteristics and Etiologic Considerations
SIG 5 Perspectives on Speech Science and Orofacial Disorders, July 2015, Vol. 25, 17-28. doi:10.1044/ssod25.1.17
History: Received February 12, 2015 , Revised May 7, 2015 , Accepted May 7, 2015
SIG 5 Perspectives on Speech Science and Orofacial Disorders, July 2015, Vol. 25, 17-28. doi:10.1044/ssod25.1.17
History: Received February 12, 2015; Revised May 7, 2015; Accepted May 7, 2015

Nasal fricatives (NFs) are unusual, maladaptive articulations used by children both with and without palatal anomalies to replace oral fricatives. Nasal fricatives vary in articulatory, aerodynamic, and acoustic-perceptual characteristics with two generally distinct types recognized. One type is produced with velopharyngeal (VP) constriction that results in turbulent nasal airflow and, frequently, tissue vibration (flutter) at the VP port. Trost (1981)  described these as posterior NFs that have a distinctive snorting quality. A second type of NF is produced without significant VP constriction resulting in turbulent airflow generated at the anterior liminal valve of the nose. Of importance, both types are “active” alternative articulations in that the speaker occludes the oral cavity to direct all airflow through the nose (Harding & Grunwell, 1998). It is this oral gesture that differentiates NFs from obligatory (or passive) nasal air escape that may sound similar due to incomplete VP closure. The purpose of this article is to (1) describe the articulatory, aerodynamic, and acoustic-perceptual nature of NFs, and (2) propose a theoretical framework for the acquisition of NFs by children both with and without cleft palate.

Acknowledgment
Research reported in this publication was supported by the National Institute of Dental & Craniofacial Research of the National Institutes of Health under Award Number R01DE022566. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.
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